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澳洲毕业论文代写-自闭症

澳洲毕业论文代写-自闭症

创造了“神经多样性”一词的哈维·布鲁姆认为,由于网络计算机组织生活的方式,世界正变得越来越自闭。自闭症是一系列的病症。越来越多的人在接触“自闭症”这个术语时,会把它当作一种医疗状况。与大众传媒有联系的人,以及接触到这一概念的人,会明白这不仅仅是一种条件。这是许多人的一种生活方式。当人们遭受来自谱系障碍的一些因素时,他们就会适应这种生活方式。那些没有因为自闭症谱系障碍而受苦的人将会以一种不同的方式适应在大众媒体上听到这个词。无论如何,人们不会以同样的方式看待自闭症。相互联系和网络给这个词带来了完全不同的含义和理解。这篇文章试图讨论神经多样性和自闭症在一个充满科技的社会的世界。

神经的多样性和自闭症

朱迪·辛格创造了自闭症这个词。然而,流行的并不是歌手版本。1988年,哈维·布鲁姆(Harvey Blume)在《神经多样性》(neurodiversity)杂志上提出了自闭症一词。哈维·布鲁姆在《大西洋月刊》的一篇文章中写道,

“神经多样性对人类来说可能和生物多样性对整个生命一样重要。谁能说哪种接线形式在任何时候都是最好的呢?例如,控制论和计算机文化可能偏爱某种程度上自闭的思维方式。简单地理解这一点会使人认为神经的多样性和社会的变化是一种适应形式。根据布鲁姆的说法,自闭症现在被认为是一种似乎必要的改变。这是一个有趣的讨论,将自闭症纳入一个不仅仅是残疾的社会模型。朱迪•辛格(Judy Singer)在她的著作《神经学上的不同》(neurologic Different)中试图产生一种类似的表现。在性别、阶级和种族的许多类别中,神经多样性的应用将提出另一个独特的观点。它将以更开放的思维探索残疾的社会模式。曾经被认为是精神疾病的疾病将不再被认为是精神疾病。神经源性疾病可以理解为一种适应。因此,头脑的紊乱是头脑的适应。它代表了另一种人类差异,如阶级、宗教、性别等。如果这些都是不同之处,那么世界就会接受它们作为社会秩序的一部分,并围绕它们运转。当一个人是男性或女性时,可能会根据他们的性别给予他们一些特权。同样,当一个人到了一定的年龄,他们可能会在商店获得额外的优惠,等等。这一切意味着,社会包容了所有的差异。社会呈现出包含这些差异的社会秩序。它让不同的人茁壮成长,让不同的人找到他们的生活方式和幸福。它鼓励差异,教会每个人包容和包容。对于自闭症或其他神经系统疾病,Judy建议使用类似的方法和理解。因此,神经多样性必须被视为一个词或概念,就像性别等概念一样。性别概念是一个强有力的话语主体。它打开了许多理解的途径。性别已被用来探讨压抑妇女、女性化、性别化研究和其他辩论的主题。同样,神经多样性也必须具有同样复杂的内涵。它应该在话语和大众传播中占有一席之地(Goldsmith et al., 2004)。作为人类自然差异的另一种形式,Judy展示了神经多样性,Blume展示了一个具体的例子。如果神经多样性是所有和任何有神经起源的精神疾病的总称,那么Blume在总称下给出了一个具体的例子。因此自闭症现在受到了更强烈的讨论。当与技术相结合时,它保证了个人更多的自由(Blume, 1997)。自闭症不再仅仅局限于医学研究领域,它将被认为是一种使人类多样化的概念,也许是一种必要的适应。

澳洲毕业论文代写-自闭症

Harvey Blume who coined the term neurodiversity suggests that the world is becoming more autistic as an effect of the way that life has become organized by networked computers. Autism is a spectrum of conditions. More often people who are getting introduced to the term ‘autism’ hear it as a medical condition. People who connect with mass media and who are introduced to the concept would understand that it is more than just a condition. It is a way of living for many people. People adapt to this way of living when they are suffering some elements of disorder from the spectrum. People who are not suffering because of autism spectrum would be adapting to hearing the word in mass media in a different way. Either ways, people would not see autism in the same way. Interconnections and networking lends a totally different meaning and understanding to the word. This essay attempts to discuss neurodiversity and autism in the world of a technology laden society.

Neurodiversity and Autism

Judy Singer was the one who coined the term autistic. However, it was not the Singer version that was popular. The term Autism was introduced into an issue of neurodiversity by Harvey Blume in the year 1988. In an article of the Atlantic, Harvey Blume wrote,

“Neurodiversity may be every bit as crucial for humans as biodiversity is for life in general. Who can say what form of wiring will prove best at any given moment? Cybernetics and computer culture, for example, may favour a somewhat autistic cast of mind” (Blume, 1998, para. 4). Understanding this in simple terms would make one think that the neurodiversity and changes in society are a form of adaptation. According to Blume autism is now represented as a seemingly necessary change. This is an interesting discussion in including autism into a social model of more than just disability. Judy Singer in her writing ‘Neurologically Different’ attempts to produce a similar representation. In the many categories of gender, class and race, the application of neurodiversity will present yet another singular perspective. It will explore social models of disability with a more open thinking. What was once considered as a mental disorder would no longer be considered so. Disorders that have neurological origins can be understood as an adaptation. A disorder of the mind thus is an adaptation of the mind. It represents one more human difference, like class, religion, gender etc. If each of these were differences, the world accepted them as part of the social order and works around them. When one is a male or a female then there are some sets of privileges that might be given to them based on their gender. Similarly, when one is of a certain age they might for instance get an extra concession in a shop, etc. What all this means is that, society has included all differences. Society presents social orders that encompass these differences. It lets the differences thrive and lets different people find their way of living and happiness. It encourages differences and teaches everybody tolerance and inclusion. Now in the case of autism or any other disorder of neurological origin, Judy suggests employing a similar approach and understanding. Neurodiversity hence must be treated as a word or concept that is like concepts like gender etc. The concept of gender is a powerful discourse subject. It opens much avenues of understanding. Gender has been used to explore topics of suppression of women, feminization, gendered studies and other debates. In a similar way, neurodiversity also must be given the same complex connotations. It deserves its own place in discourses and mass communication (Goldsmith et al., 2004). As an alternative form of natural human differences, Judy presents neurodiversity and Blume presents a specific example. If neurodiversity is the blanket term for all and any mental disorders that have a neuro origin, then Blume presents a specific example under the blanket term. So autism hence comes under a much stronger discourse now. It guarantees more freedom for the individual when combined with technology (Blume, 1997). Autism can no longer be considered only in the realm of medical studies, it will be considered as a concept that diversifies humans, a necessary adaptation maybe.