本篇文章主要講述在這些研究中，男性的角色和男子氣概幾乎變得不為人知。女性認同與男性認同的關係及其差異需要成為研究的重點。男子氣概的原則理論方法已成為“關鍵問題”的一個整體焦點。很明顯，應該發展基於實踐的理論，包括男性化、女性化意識形態、文本、人工製品和情境知識的變量(Lewis & Simpson, 2010)。本篇代寫essay文章由澳洲論文通AssignmentPass輔導網整理，供大家參考閱讀。
In these studies the role of the men and masculinity becomes almost invisible. Female identity and the male identity relations and their differences need to be the focal point of the studies. The principle theoretical approach to masculinity has become an integral focal point towards the “critical issue”. It is evident that there should be the development of practice based theory that encompasses the variables of masculinity, femininity ideology, texts, artifacts and the situated knowledge (Lewis & Simpson, 2010).
In the early 1970s the notion of gender was largely focused on the women in the societies. It was a large focal point towards the issues of women empowerment. There are limited or no discussion of the interrelationship between the genders and the social construct.
“Sociobiological approach” can be explained as a shared assumption in the society it is determined the notion of gender is based on biological construction of the body. Darwin’s evolutionary theory also points towards the fact that the men in the societies have a natural masculinity and there is evolutionary pressure on the human race. It is assumed that biologically men have innate aggressiveness and territoriality. It is assumed that the men in the societies must act in a certain manner and they should ensure that they meet these norms. Using the advantage of biological aggressiveness that is expected to be a part of the man they started to exercise control over the women. It was considered normative that the men are aggressive and the women should yield to the needs. These were normalized in the societies. These established normative principles in the societies were threatened by the notion of any difference in the attitude of the men. There is a radical dichotomy that rose as a result of this normative principle in the male and female relationship (Bruni, Gherardi & Poggio, 2004). The metaphor that the body is a machine that is capable of thought in only one predominate direction leads to significant confusion in the identity politics. Men were considered to be predators that had the role of conquering and preserving. This was ingrained in the societies. This was the fundamental sociobiological approach that was found in the masculinity studies. Malinowski’s and Margaret Mead’s anthropological studies also reiterated that the human followed the particular norms. Ralph Linton (1936) was one of the initial theorists who had proposed the role in which the people play under the ideals of gender. The flexible interpretations were also explained in this theory.