关于元认知有多元化的概念和理论,它的元素和属性。Hargrove元认知定义为“注意的能力,参加,并使用个人信息的认知过程,并指窗台了解认知现象”(2007)。劳森描述元认知指导我们内部流程的流程或“富有成效的思考”(2006)。元认知处理策略,帮助人们认知意识到自己的心理过程,是由三个主要阶段:计划、监控和评价(Schraw & Moshman,1995)。一般来说,个人的认知过程的意识和监管被称为元认知。
There are diversified concepts and theories about metacognition, its elements and attributes. Hargrove defined metacognition as ” the ability to be aware of, to attend to, and use information about personal cognitive processes, and refers to know ledge about cognitive phenomena” (2007). Lawson describes metacognitions as the processes that guide our internal processes or “productive thinking” (2006). Metacognition deals with strategies that help people be cognitively aware of their own mental processes and is composed of three major phases: planning, monitoring, and evaluation (Schraw & Moshman, 1995). Generally, the awareness and regulation of personal cognitive processes is referred to as metacognition.
Going deep inside, metacognition has two basic components, which are, (a) knowledge of one’s own cognition and (b) control of cognition and resulting actions. The first component refers to information of personal cognitive potential, requirements of task under consideration and essential procedures involved in performing the task. This component is considered as a core component that is basic building block of problem solving process. The later component of metacognition encompasses the control of elements of cognitive procedure, which includes: (a) predictions, (b) execution parameters and (c) assessment of process. Predictions refer to foreseeing of outcomes, goal clarification, hazards and expected hurdles involved in the process. Making precautions before implementation of cognitive abilities lead to less possibility of failure. Monitoring of execution parameters is an essential and vital part of regulation. It includes time and cost regulation, estimation of required efforts to implement the task and mood control. Evaluation of process, that is, attainment of goal, learning from mistakes and experiences, is a very important part in any creative process as it helps in further problem solving tasks and adds to experience and expertise of a problem solver.
The educational approaches that are focused on understanding and practicing of metacognitive tactics are found to make positive differences in many areas. Metacognition pedagogy have resulted strong impacts in reading comprehensions, mathematics, problem solving, computer based learning, controlling of moods and monitoring precision and many other areas. However, it is found that studies focusing training of individuals to develop creative abilities are very rare (Henessary & Amabile, 2010). The psychologists, specializing in cognition, have focused on manageable cognitive traits, like awareness, reasoning ability and decision making power, since the era of cognitive realization began in 1950s (Sternberg & Lubart, 1996). Theorists believe that by improving these types of cognitive abilities will promote creativeness in an individual to a greater extent. They also studied highly creative individuals in their laboratories which is indeed a difficult task. Moreover, investigating clear-cut cases of cognitive creativity was also challenging for all psychologists and theorists. In context to these difficulties and challenges, Guilford (1950) proposed that instead of endorsing these approaches to investigate creativity in daily life, a psychometric approach can prove to be more fruitful.