代写英文论文:身份概念

代写英文论文:身份概念

身份概念是在社会政治话语背景下,从心理学角度提出的概念。它指的是一个人最好将自己定义为一个由行为、信仰和态度形成的独立的个体的方式(Samovar ET AL., 2010)。身份的形成受社会规范、文化价值观、生活方式、政治取向等因素的影响。通过使用身份的概念,个体将自己归类为特定的群体成员。这样的群体往往有相似的行为、信仰和态度。此外,它还用于根据行为、信仰和态度的差异来区分属于其他群体的人(Tchistiakova和Waechter, 2015)。因此,根据这一观点,欧洲人的身份可以被定义为一套价值观、信仰和规范,这些价值观、信仰和规范支持一个人作为欧洲人的自我认同。这并不妨碍个体从自我识别到其他身份。一个人可以同时拥有德国人、瑞典人或法国人的欧洲身份,前提是与各种身份相关的价值观、信仰和规范互不冲突(Waechter, 2015)。

什么决定了欧洲人的身份

欧洲身份的概念取决于它所讨论的话语类型。然而,主要目的是在欧洲各国之间建立统一。欧洲身份的决定因素也随着话语类型的不同而不同。例如,欧洲特性形成的一些决定因素与政治和经济结构有关。欧盟机构的存在决定了个人的欧洲身份。

代写英文论文:身份概念

欧洲认同的另一个决定因素是规范性,它提出认同与每个欧洲人所共有的信仰和价值观的一般观念之间的关系。这些价值观和信念阻止了我超越个别国家或文化过去政治身份的共同性,从而决定了单一的欧洲身份。价值观、信仰、规范、行为等与人相关的方面是欧洲身份的最强决定因素(Mols和Weber, 2012)。

欧洲身份的概念是1973年在哥本哈根首脑会议上提出的。欧共体成员会议之后发表了《欧洲特性宣言》,该宣言最初只限于将经济和政治特性确定为欧洲一体化的决定因素

欧洲身份(Peebles, 2011)。然而,几十年来,欧洲身份的演变意义现在主要包括文化和公民因素作为其主要决定因素。文化因素指的是人们与其他欧洲国家的人在共同准则、价值观和信仰方面的亲密感,与非欧洲国家的人相比。公民因素提到对界定影响人民日常生活的规则、准则和权利的政治组织的认同程度。这些是欧洲身份的一些基本决定因素。一个人也可以在他对共同文化的认识的基础上拥有欧洲身份,同时也可以将欧盟作为决定欧洲身份的政治组织而衰落。因此,欧洲身份的程度受到政治因素合法性的影响,这些政治因素声称是欧洲身份的一个指标,或者一个人可以获得的证据,表明他与其他欧洲人的相似之处。因此,欧洲身份的两个基本决定因素是公民或政治因素和文化因素。

代写英文论文:身份概念

The idea of identity is a concept taken from the psychology when referred in the background of social and political address. It refers to the way in which a person would preferably define themselves as a distinct and separate individual formed by the behaviour, beliefs and attitudes (Samovar ET AL., 2010). The identity formation is affected by various factors like social norms, cultural values, lifestyle and political orientations. By using the idea of identity individuals categorize themselves as a particular group member. Such group tends to share similar behaviours, beliefs and attitudes. Also it is used for separating the people who belong to other groups on the basis of differences in behaviours, beliefs and attitudes (Tchistiakova and Waechter, 2015). Thus as per this standpoint the European identity could be defined as a set of values, beliefs, and norms which supports the self-identification of a person as European. This does not bar the individual’s from identifying themselves to other identities. A person can own a European identity simultaneously with a national identity of being a German, Swedish or French, given that the values, beliefs, and norms related with the various identities does not conflict with each other (Waechter, 2015).

What determines European Identify

The idea of European identity depends on the discourse type in which it is deliberated. However the primary purpose is to generate unity among the Europeans. The determinants of the European identity also vary with the variation in the discourse type. For example, some of the determinants for the formation of European identity are associated with the political and economic structures. The presence of the EU institutions determines the European identity for the individuals.

代写英文论文:身份概念

Other determinant for the European identity is normative which proposes the relation of identity with the general ideas with respect to believes and values shared by every Europeans. These values and believes deter mine the commonality surpassing past political identities of individual countries or cultures and thus determine the single European identity. The values, believes, norms, behaviours and other such people related aspects are the strongest determinants of the European identity (Mols and Weber, 2012).

The idea of the European identity developed in 1973 in the Copenhagen summit. The meeting of the EC members was followed by the Declaration of European Identity which was originally restricted to economic and political identification as determinants of the

European identity (Peebles, 2011). However, over decades the evolving meaning of the European identity now accommodates mainly the cultural and the civic factors as its prime determinants. The cultural factors denote to the feeling that the people have with respect to the closeness in terms of common norms, values and believes with the people from other European nations in comparison with the people from non-European nations. The civic factors mention the grade of identification with respect to the political organizations which defines the rules, guidelines and rights affecting the common daily lives of the people. These are some of the fundamental determinants of the European identity. The person can also have a European identity on the basis of his awareness of the common culture and at the same time can decline the EU as a political organization determinant of the European identity. Thus the extent of European identity is affected by the lawfulness of the political element which claims to be an indicator of European identity or the evidence a person can get for the type of resemblances with the other Europeans. Hence the two fundamental determinants of the European identity are the civic or political and the cultural factors.