許多學者已經得出結論，社會經濟背景一直是加拿大教育不平等的原因(Davies & Guppy, 2010)。有學者認爲，加拿大的教育不平等是由於學生在資本主義社會的正規教育體系中的分流。班級隊伍在教育和職業課程中都有，由於這些課程的存在，孩子們沒有動力接受高等教育(Davies & Guppy, 2010)。其他一些社會學家認爲，“學校教育通過其在經濟、文化、社會資源和優勢的代際傳遞過程中的中心位置，促進了階級差異的再生產”(Guppy, 2006)。
本文將從兩個維度對加拿大教育不平等進行更詳細的研究。主要基於Darvin and Norton(2014)對農民工學生及其社會階層和身份的研究。他們說明，農民工學生的社會階層作爲經濟來源和制約因素，導致了不同的學習結果(p.111)。根據研究的證據，我將討論種族和文化如何對社會階級產生影響，並進一步影響造成不平等的教育。其次，根據Taines(2010)的研究，研究者關注的是城市地區和郊區教育的不平等。她指出，地區界線造成教育差距(臨414)。這將有助於研究地理分佈如何影響教育以及它如何與不平等有關。此外，Edgerton等人(2008)的文章對教育不平等的不同原因進行了更全面的分析。這使我們對所有這些教育不平等的不同原因如何相互影響以及它們之間的關係有了更好的認識。
Many scholars have concluded that the socio-economic background has been the persistent reason behind the education inequality in Canada (Davies & Guppy, 2010). There are some scholars who have stated that the educational inequality in the Canada is due to the channelling of the students in the formal education system of the capitalist societies. The class contingent is done in educational as well as in occupational courses, due to which children are not motivated for the higher education (Davies & Guppy, 2010). Some of the other sociologists have argued that “schooling contributes to the reproduction of class differences via its central location in the process of intergenerational transmission of economic, cultural, and social resources and advantages” (Guppy, 2006).
This paper will study educational inequality among Canada in more details from two dimensions. Primarily, base on Darvin and Norton (2014)’s research on migrant students and their social class and identity. They illustrate that migrant students’ social class as the affordances and constraints leads to different learning outcomes (p.111). With the evidence from the research, I will discuss how race and culture have impact on social class and bring further affect on education that creates inequality. Secondly, according to the research by Taines (2010), the researcher focuses the inequality between education in urban area and suburban area. She demonstrates that district lines contribute to educational disparity (p.414). This would be helpful to study how geographical distribution affects education and how it is related with inequality. In addition, Edgerton et al. (2008)’s article provides more comprehensive analysis on different causes of educational inequality. This leads to a better viewpoint on how all those divergent reasons of educational inequality influence among each other and their relationship.
The purpose of formal education is to offer high quality learning environment for students, and providing equal chance to them to attain success in future. The gap among schools and students coming from different socio-economic and racial backgrounds revels that the situation is very difficult in educational system of country. Income inequality is the biggest reason behind education inequality. The paper aims to look through different reasons of inequalities among students of Canada which hamper their educational dream.