治理是一个非常通用的术语，用于描述那些指导人类行为实现某些形式的目标所需的方法和目标。环境治理是“决定资源或环境如何利用的正式和非正式安排、制度和习俗:如何评估和分析问题和机会;认为可以接受或禁止的行为;影响资源和环境利用模式的规则和制裁”(Ecologic, 2015, p.1)。本节将讨论环境治理的必要性以及治理的例子。的一些环境治理是建立在这一领域的国际公约的规定捕鲸(少数),协议保护北极熊的这是一个在国际上形成了一个一次,保护海洋环境公约(1994年谢尔曼,p.278)。这些管理当局都有不同的环境保护议程。ICRW负责管理捕鲸和相关海洋生物。要妥善处理这些问题，必须从环境治理的不同方面入手。
A secondary research method has been made use of here. The secondary research method is one that makes use of the existing literature evidence in the subject being analyzed. However, the research question being answered is quite unique. Not much research has been conducted or a consensus has been arrived at with respect to stakeholder representation in the law. The very nature of the law is to ensure that it is fair and just for everybody. In the case of the Arctic, the law can be fair for everybody only when different stakeholder representations are given equal weightage. For answering whether this weight age is given, the research makes use of secondary data. Primarily, the research paper discussions have been divided into three sections. The next section is a detailed literature review. This forms the core of the paper. All secondary data on the subject to be discussed along with critical reviews on the data as presented by other researchers are discussed here. Using the literature review as the base, an argument is made for better stakeholder representation in chapters 3 and 4. While chapter 3 deals with the stakeholder, types and marginalized representation, chapter 4 deals with the legal issues and challenges that might exist for achieving this. The recommendations from discussing the research question are also presented in this chapter.
Chapter 2 Academic Literature Review
A detailed academic literature review will be presented here. Some of the main subtopics that are discussed here are the need for environmental governance, the existing polycentric soft laws, the sustainable management in the arctic environment and the need for complete stakeholder support and also problems of representations are then discussed.
2.1. Need for Environmental Governance in the Arctic Environment and examples of Governance
Governance is a very general term that is used to describe those methods and goals that are required for guiding human behavior toward the achievement of some forms of goals. Environmental governance is the “the formal and informal arrangements, institutions, and mores which determine how resources or an environment are utilized: how problems and opportunities are evaluated and analyzed; what behavior is deemed acceptable or forbidden; and what rules and sanctions are applied to affect the pattern of resource and environment use” (Ecologic, 2015, p.1). This subsection will discuss the need for environmental governance and also example of governance. Some of the environmental governance as established in this area are the International Convention on the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW), the agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears which is an internationally formed one once again, the Convention on the Protection of marine environment and more (Sherman, 1994, p.278). Each of these governing authorities works with different environmental preservation agendas. The ICRW works with the regulation of whaling and related sea creatures. Environmental governance for the different aspects is necessary in order to handle these issues properly.