Scaffolding in the zone of proximal development helped develop mechanisms of studying where peer earning was more mutual than unidirectional. This showed opportunities to use scaffolding in the context of ZPD with focus on peer improvement strategies. The authors De Guerrero & Villamil (2000) typically used the ZPD proposed by Vygotsky, and have analysed the task taken up by two novice writers. An inter-psychological space was created when these two learners study. Now according to ZPD, there is an actual developmental level that a student could manage alone and a developmental level that requires the help of others. Now the scaffolding was introduced with respect to ZPD only at first and came to be considered a broader metaphor in the educational sector. It is typical mediated learning. While ZPD understands the needed interactions or guidance for intelligence to develop in a child so as to enter or cross the zone, from a second language perspective, the issues become more attuned to interactions than any other. The needs or challenges in learning are more unique at this point. Here it is necessary for the tutor to have a more graduated sense of understanding with respect to the learner needs; the tutor has to be contingent and should be dialogic.
The dialogic process is in fact given more importance in the case of second language learners, and in which situation it becomes pertinent to understand whether scaffolding and ZPD should only consider traditional tutor-learning situations. Mutual scaffolding could also be of help for learners and the authors in their case study analysed the benefits of mutual scaffolding. Forty didactic interaction aspects between two students were studied micro genetically. It was identified that one peer would give another some form of an instruction or a mini lesson. They would correct each other and in some cases also showed continent responsivity and psychological differentiation. They were sensitive to one another as one student understood the frustration of another at being corrected more than once. A form of affective involvement was noticed. The authors state, “An important feature that was observed throughout the interaction was the establishment and maintenance of intersubjectivity between reader and writer. This state of shared focus and intention on the part of both was achieved not only through the reader’s efforts t already mentioned but also by the writer’s good disposition” (Guerrero & Villamil, 2000, p. 65). An intention to learn by mutual scaffolding could hence be observed here.