论文代写:糖厂品需求

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04/08/2017

论文代写:糖厂品需求

现在,肥胖是市场失灵的情况,因为含糖产品的销售,因此被认为是导致负外部性的原因。虽然有人会生产含糖的食物,而其他人也会消费,但这对社会是有代价的。决策对社会的影响并不是由决定在这里销售和购买的人支付的。社会的成本之所以存在,是因为社会对社会的影响远高于买它的人所付出的代价。在这样的市场中,只有边际成本和边际效益被考虑,而不是外部性的成本。这导致市场效率低下,并解决了市场失灵的结果。含糖产品的制造商并没有控制产品的外部性成本。在这种情况下,供给曲线会下降,随着边际成本的降低,需求开始上升。边际效益就等于边际成本。在下面的图中,最优产量是由Q1给出的,产量刚好满足消费者的需要。然而,第一季度的产量是过度生产和需求的结果。这导致了福利损失,也被称为无谓的福利损失(负外部性,2016)。现在,随着糖税的引入,生产者或消费者或者两者都需要额外支付产品的销售和购买。消费者最终可能会花更多的钱来使用含糖的产品,或者生产商最终可能会支付更多的钱来生产含糖的产品,这两种方法都可以通过减少产品的制造来控制需求。

论文代写:糖厂品需求

Now obesity as a market failure situation is pushed into context because of the sales of sugary products which can hence be considered as the cause for the negative externality. Although someone produces the sugary food and someone else consumes it, there is a cost to the society. The decision based impact to society is not paid for by the persons making the decisions to sell and buy here. The cost to society exists because the impact of the good to society is more than what the person buying it pays. In such a market only marginal cost and marginal benefit are considered but not the cost of externality. This results in market inefficiencies and which addressed results in market failure. The manufacturer of the sugary product does not take control of the product’s costs of externality. The supply curve shifts down in this case and with the lowering of the marginal cost, the demands start to rise. Marginal benefit hence becomes equal to that of the marginal cost. In the below graph, the optimal production is given by Q1 which is the production that is just enough to satisfy the consumers. However Q1 is the production that has been the result of excessive production and demand. This results in welfare loss which is also called the deadweight welfare loss (Negative Externality, 2016). Now with the introduction of the sugar tax, what happens is that either the producer or consumer or both would have to pay extra for the product to be sold and purchased. Consumer might end up paying more to use a sugary product or producer might end up paying more to manufacture a sugary product, either ways would help control the demands by reducing the manufacturing of the product.

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