论文代写:药物滥用

论文代写:药物滥用

巴甫洛夫和工具性条件作用在物质成瘾的发展和维持中的作用。与物质相关的疾病是指滥用酒精、可卡因和海洛因等多种药物,以改变人们的感觉、思考和行为方式。药物滥用涉及广泛和持续地使用导致危险行为的物质。药物滥用的DSM-IV-TR标准包括不良的物质使用模式导致临床损伤。经常使用导致未能履行职责。这个人从事身体危险的活动,可能会面临法律后果。

论文代写:药物滥用
在巴甫洛夫条件反射中,中性刺激与非条件刺激配对,而非条件刺激引起无条件反应。在重复配对后,中性刺激成为条件刺激,并引出最初由非条件刺激产生的反应。反应被称为条件反应。在操作性条件作用中,学习是通过强化来实现的。具有理想后果的行为得到加强。物质的使用是后天习得的行为。巴甫洛夫条件作用过程在酒精和其他物质依赖的发展、维持和复发过程中发挥着重要作用,可能通过影响思想和行为。由于巴甫洛夫条件反射,一个人可能会将环境刺激与某种药物的反应联系起来。环境刺激以前是一个中性的刺激与药物有关它是无条件刺激产生反应(条件反应)这是之前由药物产生的。在这种环境刺激下,可能会引发复发。与药物使用有关的环境线索会产生生理上的变化,经常使用者可能会将其解释为戒断症状或药物渴求。研究表明,有物质使用障碍的个体对与物质有关的诱因有“注意力偏差”。环境暗示与渴望有关,并可能导致复发(Field, Marhe和Franken, 2014)。

论文代写:药物滥用

Role of Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning in the development and maintenance of substance addiction
Substance-related disorders refers to abuse of drugs such as alcohol, cocaine and heroin and with a variety of other substances in order to alter the way people feel, think and behave. Substance abuse involves extensive and continuous use of substance which results in hazardous behaviour. DSM-IV-TR criteria for substance abuse includes maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinical impairment. There is recurrent use resulting in failure to fulfil duties. The person engages in physically dangerous activities and may face legal consequences.
In pavlovian conditioning, neutral stimulus is paired with unconditioned stimulus which elicits unconditioned response. After repeated pairing, the neutral stimulus becomes conditioned stimulus and elicits the response which was originally produced by unconditioned stimulus. The response is referred to as conditioned response. In operant conditioning, learning occurs by reinforcement. Behaviours with desirable consequences are reinforced.

论文代写:药物滥用
Substance use is learned behaviour. Pavlovian conditioning processes play an important role in the development, maintenance and relapse of alcohol and other substance dependence possibly by influencing thought and behaviour. As a result of pavlovian conditioning, a person might associate environmental stimulus with response to certain drug. Environmental stimulus which was previously a neutral stimulus gets associated with drug which is the unconditioned stimulus and produce a response (conditioned response) which was previously produced by the drug. In this environmental stimulus may act as relapse trigger. Environmental cues that have been associated with drug use can produce physiological changes that regular user might interpret as withdrawal symptoms or drug craving. It has been shown that individuals with substance use disorder have “attentional bias” for substance related triggers. Environmental cues are associated with craving and may lead to relapse (Field, Marhe and Franken, 2014).