reference 格式:电子垃圾对环境的影响

reference 格式:电子垃圾对环境的影响

以上所讨论的类别只是电子废物内含物的简介。电子垃圾的种类繁多,主要是导致这个问题日益严重的原因。

reference 格式:电子垃圾对环境的影响

电信和ICT设备的主要贡献者是电子垃圾由于大量使用大型机,个人电脑(包括CPU、屏幕,键盘,鼠标和其他外围设备),笔记本电脑,平板电脑,打印机,扫描仪,设备的网络、移动电话、dvd、UPS、广播、电视、录像机、摄像机、音频功放、音响系统和许多其他乐器的音乐(杨et al .,2015)。除此之外,另一种电子垃圾来自官方电子产品,包括影印设备、电子打字机、计算器和电话。器具的贡献也相当大,因为它们在大的和小的两类之间有所区别。大型家用电器包括冰箱、冷冻机、洗碗机、洗衣机、烹饪设备、微波炉、烤箱、电热板、电热器具、电热散热器、电风扇、空调、烟囱、通风空调设备、主要加热床、家具、客房电器等。而家用小电器则包括地毯清扫器、烤面包机、吸尘器、烤面包机、饮水机、理发和烘干器具、电动牙刷、电动刀、钟表等用于编织、缝纫和编织的电器(Petridis et al., 2016)。用户设备涵盖铣削、磨削、切割、钻孔、加工金属、木材等多种材料的机械。钉钉、螺丝和除钉工具也属于这一类,还有焊接工具和园艺设备。休闲和运动设备包括电动玩具、电子游戏、潜水、跑步和骑自行车的电脑和其他电动运动设备。世界范围内广泛使用的照明包括荧光管和灯具、高强度放电灯以及其它家庭自动化和灯光控制设备。广泛应用于当地临床和医院的医疗设备有扫描仪、放射治疗设备、心脏病学设备、透析设备、核医学设备、诊断实验室设备。这进一步包括了其他基于电器的检测、预防、监测、治疗和减轻疾病(Robinson, 2009)。电池通常还包括镍、铅和镉电池。这并不局限于讨论的项目,因为有自动分配器用于热饮和冷饮,罐头,数钱机和各种其他自动功能产品。

reference 格式:电子垃圾对环境的影响

The above discussed categories are only the brief of e-waste inclusions. There are various types of e-waste that contribute majorly to the growing issue.

reference 格式:电子垃圾对环境的影响

Telecommunications and ICT equipment are the major contributors to the e-waste due to the heavy usage of mainframes, personal computers (consisting of a CPU, screen, keyboard, mouse and other peripherals), laptops, tablets, printers, scanners, equipment of networking, mobile phones, DVDs, UPS, radio, television, video recorders, camera, audio amplifiers, hi-fi systems, and numerous other instruments of music (Yeo et al., 2015). Apart from this, another type of e-waste is generated from the official electronics including the photocopy equipment, electronic typewriters, calculators and telephones. The contribution of appliances is also considerable as they are differentiated among two categories, large and small. Large household appliances include refrigerators and freezers, dish washers, washing machine, equipment of cooking, microwaves, ovens, electric hot plates, heating appliances, electric radiators and fans, air conditioner, chimney, ventilating and conditioning equipment, major heating beds, furniture and rooms appliances. While the small appliances in very household consist of the carpet sweepers, toaster, vacuum cleaners, toasters, water dispensers, hair cutting and drying appliances, electric teeth brush, electric knives, clocks and other appliances that are employed for knitting, sewing and weaving (Petridis et al., 2016). Consumer equipment covers the machines for milling, grinding, cutting, drilling, processing metal, woods and more materials. Nailing, screwing and nail removing tools are also within this category type along with soldering tools and gardening equipment. Leisure and sport equipment involve electric toys, video games, computers for diving, running and biking and other electric sports equipment. Lighting as generally and widely used worldwide consists of florescent tubes and lamps, discharge lamps of high intensity along with other equipment of home automation and light controlling. Medical equipment that is widely used in local clinic and hospitals are scanners, equipment for radiotherapy, cardiology, dialysis, nuclear medicine, lab equipment for diagnosis. This is further inclusive of other detection, prevention, monitoring, and treatment and alleviating illness based electric appliances (Robinson, 2009). Batteries are also commonly contributing factor inclusive of nickel, lead and cadmium batteries. This is not limited to the discussed items as there are automatic dispensers used for hot and cold drinks, cans, money counting machine and various other automatic functioning products.