论文代写:个人主义与集体参与

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11/12/2017

论文代写:个人主义与集体参与

另一个重要的因素是参与决策过程的人。个人主义或集体参与是很重要的(韦伯,Festing and Dowling,2013)。权力距离维度也对人们决定人们如何做出决定起着重要的作用。个人主义的美国经理人通常根据自己的判断制定决策或工作计划。在中国,情况并非如此。这是一个非常集中的管理系统,同时也有更多的从属关系,人们根据集体的态度做出决策。这使我们很难对中国形成一种看法。有研究表明,国家的雇员应该做出由主管做出的决定。中国的管理要复杂得多。管理者做出的决策通常是不参与的。许多组织被发现是国有的,这使经理们遵守了政府规定的任务。在过去,最终的决定是由上级决定的。人们期望的是更少的透明度和绝对的服从。中国员工正在发生变化。在现代中国企业中,有相当多的参与式决策,更多的员工自治是给人民的(拉拉帕利和蒙哥马利,2015年)。中国是一个折衷的社会,它改变了许多基于西方模式的工作系统。因此,中国的工作组织雇员不是士兵,他们暗中服从命令,他们往往会质疑行动。然而,与美国的公司系统相比,它还是比较小的(拉帕利和蒙哥马利,2015年)。

论文代写:个人主义与集体参与

Another important factor is that the people who are involved in the decision making process. Individualistic or collectivistic participation is important (Weber, Festing and Dowling, 2013). The power distance dimension also plays an important role for the people to determine how the people make decisions. The individualistic American managers usually formulate a decision or a work plan based on their own discretion. This is not the case in China. It is a very centralized management system and there is more subordination at the same time the people form decisions based on collectivistic attitude. This makes it difficult to formulate an opinion about China. There is research that indicates that the employees of the countries should make the decisions made by the supervisors. Chinese management is much more complicated. The decisions that are made by the managers are usually non-participatory in approach. Many of the organizations are found to state owned and this causes the managers to follow the mandates that are prescribed to them from the government. In the past the final decisions are made in China by the superiors. There was lesser transparency and implicit obedience that is expected from the people. The Chinese employees are changing in the current times. There is considerable participatory decision making in the modern Chinese companies and more worker autonomy is given to the people (Rallapalli and Montgomery, 2015). China is an eclectic society that has changed many of the working systems based on the Western modalities. Hence Chinese working organizational employees are not soldier who follow the orders implicitly they do tend to question the operations. Nevertheless, it is lesser when compared to the American company systems (Rallapalli and Montgomery, 2015).

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