自20世纪80年代以来，方法链和末端链模型一直被应用于市场营销。该模型的基本思想是“消费者的行为无论是无意识的还是有意识的都是目标导向的”。消费者购买商品通常是为了达到目标。目标存在于包罗一切的社会、道德和个人价值观中，即希望成为有用的人、幸福的人、保护家庭的人、归属感的人等等。这些基本上是消费者想通过购买产品来达到的目的。根据该理论，达到这些目的的手段是消费者购买的物品或产品的属性或特征。该模型与预期/价值理论和兰开斯特模型中固有的理性选择模型有密切的相似性。为广告研究和营销的目的,开发资产,人们的偏好模型可以解释对于一个有规则的产品的属性之间的关系,结果获得的属性,和相关性的后果的个人会议重要个人价值观(麦当劳et al ., 2012)。这个模型可以用一个简单的实际例子来解释。
Simple Expectancy/Value Attitude Theory
According to the expectancy/value theory, the preference of consumers is a socio-psychological model, which stresses that the attitude of a consumer in terms of preference for some object (e.g. place, service, product, idea or person) could be explicitly resolved through two measurable antecedents. The first antecedent is the belief of the consumer about the characteristics or features of the purchase (expectancy), and the second antecedent is the evaluation of these features by the consumers (value). The theory actually suggests that one’s attitude towards some object is the sum of the beliefs about the characteristics, and weighted through one’s evaluation about those characteristics. The theory basically aims to identify the weightage of the beliefs and the values in driving sustainable consumption. For example, many people believe that the use of solar energy is a sustainable consumption which can protect the environment from damage. However, the important thing is what value they assign to protecting the environment, and such value along with other economic factors influences whether people go for this option. Even if the consumers give high value to sustainability, there are factors that cause to restrict their ability to indulge in the sustainable consumption. These factors would be discussed later. The theory is again vested in the rational choice behavior, but it gives the dimension of beliefs and values apart from the costs and benefits (McDonagh and Martin, 2015).
Means and End Chain Theory
The means and end chain model have been used in marketing since the 1980s. The basic idea under the model is that “the behavior of the consumer whether unconsciously or consciously is goal directed”. Consumers normally purchase goods for the purpose of achieving goals. The goals reside in the over-arching social, moral, personal values i.e. desire to be useful, happy, to protect the family, to belong, and so on. These are basically the ends that the consumers want to achieve through purchasing the product. The means for the purpose of meeting those ends according to the theory are the attributes or the features of the objects or products that the consumers purchase. The model has a close resemblances with the expectancy/value theory and the rational choice model that is inherent in the Lancaster model. Developed for the purpose of advertising research and marketing, the model assets that the preferences of people could be construed with regards to a laddered relationship among the attributes of a product, the outcomes that accrue from the attributes, and relevance of the consequences for the personal of meeting important personal values (McDonald et al., 2012). The model can be explained by a simple real life example.