澳洲代寫-工業徵稅

本文講工業徵稅,它對利用水和向水中排放廢水的工業徵稅。一些水稅也被工業轉移到消費者身上,從而使工業和消費者都對生態影響負責(Roper & Marshall, 1979)。如果工業和農業能夠更好地節約用水,那麼這裡也可以採用某種形式的水補貼(Roper & Marshall, 1979)。這些水稅的大部分可以直接在州和地方一級達到政府。其中一些資金還可以直接用於正在進行的生態或環境保護計劃。政府可以在乾旱的情況下使用這些集合。當發生洪水等自然原因造成的水土流失,或生態系統受到不利影響時,政府可以利用徵收的水稅來應對緊急情況。本篇澳洲代寫文章由澳洲論文通AssignmentPass輔導網整理,供大家參考閱讀。

It applied taxation for industries that made use of water and released effluents into water. Some of the water tax was also moved down to the consumer by the industries, so as to make both the industries and the consumers responsible for the eco impact (Roper & Marshall, 1979). Where industry and agriculture are able to show better economical use of water, then some form of water subsidies could also be applied here (Roper & Marshall, 1979). Much of this water tax could go directly to the government at state and local level. Some of the funds could also go directly into ongoing eco or environmental protection schemes. The government could make use of these collections in the context of a drought. When there are flooding and other natural causes of water loss, or adverse ecosystem effects, then the government would be able to make use of the water tax collected to handle the emergency situation.
Some major changes to institutional arrangements are needed in order to assess how property rights allocations and transaction costs can be handled (Norris et al., 1982). For instance, the Water Management Act 1999 is seen to provide for better transfer of water rights and to make the water allocation system a little more transparent. Now in applying the MBI, some amount of costs could be transferred to the customer, which not all customers would be able to meet. For instance, as part of the price based MBI, if sewage treatment plants were to introduce high water tax in sewage management, then some of the population who are economically well off would be able to meet the demands, but not all the population would be able to meet it. Social equity issues hence arise.
Similarly, industries on the South Esk catchment area could be included in the MBI price based taxation. However, large and small scale industries would both be caught in this taxation attempt. Not all industries would be able to meet the required taxation.
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